Standard Streams

Telecommunication is the transmission of information over transmission medium such as wire and radio waves. The medium is generally called communication channel.

Signal is a function that transfers information. Information is organized data. Data is usually numerical value which represents electromagnetic element such as voltage and current.

Process of Thread and Program

In computing, process is the execution of one or more threads in a program.


Also known as application, program is the code that performs task. Some task examples are web browsing and word processing.

Created using languages such as C++ and Python. Starts with human-readable text and ends in binary.

Binary (1 or 0) represents electrical state of on (1) and off (0).

Stored on disk or loaded to memory in binary form.


Thread is the execution of code (task). Uses program as its memory.

In a single-threaded process, the thread is the program, i.e. one task.

In a multi-thread process, the program has more than one thread running either sequentially or in parallel.


Streams are interconnected input and output (I/O) communication channels.

Standard Stream

In computing, there are three I/O connections: standard input (stdin), standard output (stdout) and standard error (stderr).

Standard Input (stdin) stream

Program/Command which reads input data such as con. Generally identified by 0(Unix-based OS) or CON (Windows).

Standard Output (stdout) stream

Program/Command which writes output data such as dir and cd. Generally identified by 1.

Standard Error (stderr) stream

Program/Command which outputs error messages such as syntax error. Generally identified by 2.


Sequence of bits. Normally referred to for FPGA’s loaded configuration data.

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