Batch/Shell Scripting

<still under construction> < to add contents from here:> Batch for Windows; Shell for Unix-based OS. A parameter is an entity that stores values.A variable is a parameter denoted by a name.Parameter expansion is the procedure to get the value from the name. Paging divides large amount of displayed text to pages using a … Read More


Prerequisites VirtualBox installed OS image Setting Up Virtual Machine Press New button Set settings accordingly and press Create Red Hat for CentOS Press Start (Normal Start generally) button to use Using Virtual Machine Guide (setup etc.): press F1 when running VirtualBox After setting up, mount the image file: Machine > Settings > Storage > Controller: … Read More


<still under construction> Install CMake In a folder, create 2 files: Build by creating a new folder in CMakeLists.txt’s directory, cd to it and run code below Make the executable (*.exe) (can run the executable in Shell/Terminal after making) CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR Root directory of the CMakeLists.txt CMake Repository


Setting up for Selenium Install Selenium Open Windows’ Command Prompt (cmd) pip install selenium WebDriver Directory Create directory anywhere convenient to place ChromeDriver Add the directory to your PATH By adding a folder containing WebDriver’s binaries to PATH, Selenium will be able to locate the additional binaries (e.g. ChromeDriver) without requiring your test code to … Read More

analog clock sketch in black surface

The Clock

Clock pulses are generated by the clock generator in the motherboard. Clock Pulse/Tick & Clock Cycle/Period 1 Hz is equal to 1 cycle per second. If a single cycle is 1/50 of a second in duration (0.02 seconds), then there will be 50 cycles in a second (1 / 0.02). We say the frequency is … Read More

black and gray mining rig

Data Transmission

In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system (e.g. wire) that transfers digital data. Digital data is represented using the binary number system of ones (1) and zeros (0). Serial Transmission In Serial Transmission, one data-bit flows bi-directionally at one clock pulse. The 8 bits are transferred having a start and stop bit.  In Parallel Transmission, 8 data-bits … Read More

light dark industry abstract


a.k.a. Random Access Memory (RAM) memory is a huge storage component that stores: Instructions of computer programs Variables (= data) used in the computer programs Computer memory is a very fast memory device used to store . . . Program instructions Program variables (= data) used by program instructions The memory (RAM) has the capability … Read More