A computer consists of 2 sections:

Data is transmitted between the two sections accordingly.

The left is the von Neumann architecture (called such because it was first defined by John von Neumann in 1945)       

Wikipedia page: click here


The motherboard in a computer acts like its heart.

  • CPU and memory are inter-connected by the system bus made up of 3 buses (address bus, data bus and control bus)
  • Bus inside a computer = a group of electrical wires that are used to transmit similar information
    • transmit the ID information of a device
      (= address/identifier)
    • transmit information between devices
      (= data/information)
    • transmit commands to devices
      (= control/command)

Peripheral devices (a.k.a.: Input/Output (I/O) peripheral devices)  

  1. Input devices (e.g., mouse, key board, scanner, disks…)
    1. Enables human users to enter data into the computer (= machine)
    2. The data will be stored inside the computer in such a way that the computer can use it effectively
  2. Output devices (e.g., terminal, printer, disks, …)
    1. Enables the computer to show data stored inside the computer to a human user in a “humanly” way
  3. Peripheral devices are auxiliary devices that allow users to:
    1. Enter inputs into the computer
    2. Obtain outputs from the computer


  1. Functional/logical structure of the computer. (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2021, from
  2. ASUS P5AD2-E Motherboard. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2021, from
  3. Northbridge (computing). (2021, June 08). Retrieved July 22, 2021, from typical north/southbridge layout
  4. Structure of the computer memory (RAM). (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2021, from